studied the mitochondrial and plastid genome of D. salina. Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil are the most important species for β-carotene production; however, other pigments and compounds like lutein, chlorophyll, glycerol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are also produced by these and other Dunaliella … Oren A. It is mostly a marine organism, though there … (2007). Dunaliella salina is famous for much more than causing the waters of Las Coloradas's salt-ponds to turn pink: The alga is grown commercially as a source of beta-carotene. This natural beta-carotene offers a number of unique … The genus was first described by Teodoresco (Teodoresco, 1905) with the type of species being Dunaliella salina, and … The D. salina zygote is extraordinarily hardy and can survive exposure to fresh water and to dryness. of America, 2011. High extracellular salt concentration drives the synthesis of glucose. Brock T. “Salinity and the Ecology of Dunaliella from Great Salt Lake.” Journal of General Microbiology, 1975. “Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses.” PLoS ONE, 2012, DOI: Dunaliella Salina is a genus of the algae family Dunaliellaceae. “A century years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005.” Saline Systems, 2005. Dunaliella salina is a model organism to study the effects of saline adaptation in algae . Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1454-1460. It is a whole food supplement. Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. … After germination, the zygotes release up to 32 haploid daughter cells. Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, … DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. Farahat N., Rabhi M., Falleh H., Jouini J., Abdelly C. and Smaoui A. The D. salina organelle genome sequence are circular and large with approximately 60% non-coding DNA . 152–157. It provides a range of trace minerals and nutrients. This offers an opportunity for commercial biological production of these substance. Chen H., Lu Y. and Jiang J. D. salina has adapted to survive in high salinity environments by accumulating glycerol to balance osmotic pressure. It is a single-celled eukaryotic … “Effects of Salts on Halophilic Alga Dunaliella viridis.” Journal of Bacteriology, 1968. Dunaliella salina was named by Emanoil C. Teodoresco of Bucharest, Romania after its original discoverer, Michel Felix Dunal, who first scientifically reported sighting the organism in saltern evaporation ponds in Montpellier, France in 1838. Arch f Protistenkd. 1989;27:221–6. doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.37.100183.000523. The chloroplast can hold large amounts of β-carotene, which makes it appear orange-red. Lerche W. Untersuchungen über Entwicklung und Fortpflanzung in der Gattung Dunaliella. 603–610. Dunaliellales. Dunaliella salina can reproduce asexually, sexually and through division of motile vegetative cells. Studies have found that Dunaliella salina … 3. Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. salina" in 1838 in the south of France occupying; however, it was not named until 1905 by Teodoresco . “Effect of salinity on sexual activity of Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco, strain CONC-006.” Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 1995. Cancer . To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic pressure. Today, the algae is being studied for various health benefits. But don’t let its pedigree fool you--this little alga is bright pink! Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. Dunaliella is a single-celled, photosynthetic green alga, that is characteristic for its ability to outcompete other organisms and thrive in hypersaline environments. The safety evaluation of Dunaliella bardawil as a potential food supplement.  D. salina preserves a high concentration of glycerol by maintaining a cell membrane with low permeability to glycerol and synthesizing large quantities of glycerol from starch as a response to high extracellular salt concentration, which is why it tends to thrive in highly salinic environments. Glycerol is used as a means by which to maintain both osmotic balance and enzymatic activity. 22 Nov 2012. β-carotene also contributes to the anti-oxidant effects of D. salina and is used as an additive in human and animal nutrition for sources of vitamin A . Although technically the production of glycerol from D. salina was shown to be possible, economic feasibility is low and no biotechnological operation exists to exploit the alga for glycerol production.. Martinez et al. Sexual reproduction, the formation of two gametes into a zygospore, is affected by salt concentrations. Due to its ability to produce red pigmentation, β-carotene, the natural food colouring is highly demanded for cosmetic products. The β-carotene appears to protect the organism from long-term UV radiation that D. salina is exposed to in its typical environments. are motile, unicellular, rod to ovoid shaped green algae, which are common in marine (salient) waters. Algae Biomass. Eukaryota (Domain); Viridiplantae (Kingdom); Chlorophyta (Phylum); Chlorophyceae (Class); Volvocales (Order); Dunaliellaceae (Family); Dunaliella (Genus). DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01036.x, 4. Dunaliella salina was thought to be responsible for the red colouring of salted brines . The sequencing of Dunaliella species is important to isolate different species for commercial purposes. The cell membrane of D. salina has low permeability to glycerol to prevent glycerol from leaving the cell , accounting for the high concentration inside the cell. The ability to tolerate high salt concentrations is advantageous, since competition is minimal as salt high salt concentrations. 6.3.2 Spacing between electrodes. Though D. salina can survive in salinic environments, Martinez et al. Process development and evaluation for algal glycerol production. 11. Skin Nourishment and moisturizing Dunaliella Salina contains effective mineral high concentration of … DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2392. In order to maximize β-carotene production, D. salina should be grown in 1.5M to 3.0 M NaCl concentration until a stable cell density is reached then increased to 4.4 – 5.0 M NaCl concentration for maximum carotenoid production . 1964;42:777–778. Dunaliella is a unicellular, bi-flagellate, naked green alga (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae). D. salina is also adapted to solar radiation using β-carotene to protect against ionizing energy. Distance between the electrodes in an electrolytic unit is an important design variable that affects the cost of operation .In harvesting of Dunaliella salina … Dunaliella Salinais a green micro-algae typically found in sea salt fields around the world. 1984;116/117:115–121.  determined the sexual activity of "D. salina" from evaluating ratio of zygotes and zygospores to total cells observed in culture. DUNALIELLA SALINA EXTRACT and EXTRACT OF DUNALIELLA SALINA. However, despite the positive contributions of D. salina, commercial production is limited due to the low productivity of β-carotene . Borowitzka, M.J. & Siva, C.J. D. Salina is a unicellular biflagellate red-coloured alga which synthesises massive amounts of carotenoid pigments, colouring the cells a very bright red. Dunaliella sp. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae (phytoplankton) especially found in sea salt fields. 1981;23:1267–1287. 2 It is often referred to as a halophile (literally, “salt-loving”) alga because it grows only in high-salt … When applied on skin it can reverse any ongoing oxidative damage to the …  Sexual reproduction begins when two D. salina’s flagella touch leading to gamete fusion. 1937; 88:236–268. To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic press… (2011). Low salt concentrations of 2% and 5% induced sexual activity, whereas higher salt concentration of 30% decreases sexual reproduction. Therefore, D. salina has a much less overall impact to colouration and archaeal communities contribute more to the red colouration of hypersaline lakes. Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga found in environments with high salt concentration . Massjuk, N.P. Among various carotenoid-rich microalgae, D. salina has the greatest carotene concentration making up ~10% algal dry weight. n.d. utilizing the 18S rDNA gene.” Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2000. Smith D., Lee R., Cushman J., Magnuson J., Tran D. and Polle J.” The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.” BMA Plant Biology, 2010. Dunaliella salina It’s an halophile microalga that grow in high salt concentrations, this fact reduces drastically the possibilities that pathogenic microorganisms can grow up. Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga of the genus and was studied since the early 19th century, and numerous species were characterized and classified since then. 9.  Different technologies are used, from low-tech extensive cultivation in lagoons to intensive cultivation at high cell densities under carefully controlled conditions. β-carotene is a type of pro-vitamin A, responsible for inhibiting the production of free radicals from ultraviolet light . Smith D., Lee R., Cushman J., Magnuson J., Tran D. and Polle J.” The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.” BMA Plant Biology, 2010. doi: 10.1002/bit.260230608. DOI: 10.5772/19046. In simple terms, it means, these … It acts as a powerful antioxidant for skin. “Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses.” PLoS ONE, 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037578. Can J Bot. , From a first pilot plant for D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production established in the USSR in 1966, the commercial cultivation of D. salina for the production of β-carotene throughout the world is now one of the success stories of halophile biotechnology. , Due to the abundance of β-carotene, which is an anti-oxidant as well as a vitamin A precursor, D. salina is a popular pro-vitamin A food supplement and cosmetic additive. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. Web. determined that sexual activity of D. salina significantly decreases in higher salt concentrations (>10%) and is induced in lower salt concentrations.